Indus Valley Civilization is the oldest civilization, which spans from 3300 BCE to 1300 BCE. This civilization is also known as the Harappan Civilization, which was named after the discovery of the first site that was excavated by Dayaram Sahni in 1921. In this article, we will provide you with all the relevant and exam-related information in one place for our students. Let’s start.
About Indus Valley Civilization:
Period: 3300-1300 BCE
Flourished period: Between 2600 BC and 1900 BC
The flourished period of the Indus Valley Civilization was also known as the Mature Indus Valley Civilization.
This civilization started declining around 1900 BC and disappeared around 1400 BC.
The Indus Valley Civilization is also known as the Harappan Civilization because Harappan was the first site that was excavated.
Extension: From northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India
Discovered by: Dayaram Sahni
Discovered in: 1921
Pre-Harappan civilization has been excavated in Mehrgar, located in Pakistan.
Geographical extension: Western UP, Northern Maharashtra, Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab, Sindh, and Balochistan
It has been extended from Sutkagengor (in Baluchistan) to Alamgirpur (Western UP) from West to East respectively.
It extended from Mandu (Jammu) to Daimabad (Ahmednagar, Maharashtra) from North to South respectively.
The traces of Indus Valley Civilization have also been found as far away as Afghanistan and Turkmenistan.
Most sites founded in this civilization are as follow:
Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
Lothal (on river Bhogawa in Gujarat)
Kalibanga (on river Ghaggar-Hakra in Rajasthan)
Banawali (on river Ghaggar-Hakra in Haryana)
Dholavira (on river Luni in Gujarat)
As per the archaeologists, the cities located in the Indus civilization were well-planned.
During the excavations at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, the archaeologists found that the cities were divided into two parts i.e. the citadel and the outer city.
Citadel: It was built on an elevated area
Outer city: It was built at a lower level
Perfect drainage system
Each house had a well-constructed sink, through which water flowed into the underground drains.
Small and large types of houses
Burnt bricks were used.
Wells and bathrooms provided in houses
Structures found in the Indus cities:
The Great Bath and pillared hall (Mohenjo-Daro)
The dockyard (Lothal)
The granary (Harappa)
Location: Punjab Province, Pakistan (on an old bank of Ravi River)
Excavated in: 1921
Excavated by: Daya Ram Sahni
Traces: Chert blades, Pottery, copper/ bronze implements, seals and sealing, terracotta figurines, weights Coffin burials (Only founded in Harrapa)
Location: Sindh, Pakistan (Next to the Indus River)
Founded in: 1922
Founded by: R. D Banerjee
Traces: Uniform buildings and weights, Great Bath, Unicorn Seals, Steatite statue of beard man, hidden drains, Ganary, Bronze buffalo, Pashupati Seal steatite seal
Location: Baluchistan on Dast river
Founded by: Stein
Founded in: 1929
Traces: Flint Blades, Trade point between Harappa and Babylon, Stone Arrowheads, Stone Vessels, Pottery, Shell Beads
Location: Mullan Sandha, Sind (on the Indus river)
Founded in: 1931
Founded by: N G Majumdar
Traces: Bangle Factory, Indus Site with no Citadel, Ink Pot, Bead makers shop, The footprint of a dog chasing a cat, and Cart with a seated driver
Location: Indus River and the Laki Hills (District of Dadu, Pakistan)
Founded by: N G Majumdar
Founded in: 1929
Traces: Antelope evidence and Rhinoceros’ evidence
Location: Hanumangarh District, Rajasthan (Located on the bank of Saraswati River)
Discovered by: Luigi Pio Tessitori (Italy)
A Ghosh did the most extensive work on Kalibangan in 1951-55 and later by BB Lal & B K Thapar did work on this site in 1961.
Traces: Fire altars were discovered, Ploughed fields, No drainage system, Wooden furrows (for sacrifices), Burials in circular grave and rectangular graves, Bones of camel
Location: Fatehabad district of Haryana
Discovered by R S Bisht
Discovered in: 1973-74
Traces: High-quality Barley, Toy plough, Beads, and only city with radial streets
Location: Rann of Kutch (Gujarat)
Discovered by: R S Bisht
Discovered in: 1985
Traces: Exclusive water management
This is the only site, till now, which was divided into three parts i.e. Embankments Stadium, Rock – Cut architecture, and Dam
It was a pre-Harappan site
Location: It is located on the left bank of the Sindh River.
Destroyed by: Force or some fire.
Traces: Tar and Statues of bull and mother goddess.
Location: Ropar (Punjab)
Excavated by: Y D Sharma
Location: Bhiwani district (Haryana)
Traces: Terracotta cartwheel and Weights of stones
Location: Hissar district (Haryana), located on the bank of Saraswati-Drishadvati rivers
Founded in: 1997
Founded by: Prof. Surajbhan & Acharya Bhagwan Dev
Traces: The team founded the eEvidences of two cultures early harappan and mature harappan.