G20 Summit 2023: Global Biofuel Alliance

logo class24
Best Online Coaching Platform

During the 2023 G20 summit, Indian Prime Minister, Narendra Modi launched the global initiative named Global Biofuel Alliance (GBA). He also invited G20 nations to join this alliance and urged nations to take a pledge to bring ethanol blending with petrol globally to 20%.

This alliance was launched by PM Modi (Indian PM), Joe Biden (US President), Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva (Brazilian President), Sheikh Hasina, (Bangladesh PM), and Giorgia Meloni (Italian PM).

What is the Global Biofuels Alliance (GBA)?

  • The GBA mirrors the International Solar Alliance (ISA), which was launched by India and France in 2015.

    • Aim of ISA: To bring clean and affordable solar energy

  • The founding members of GBA are India, the USA, and Brazil.

  • These members contribute about 85% of the global production and 81% of the consumption of ethanol.

  • A total of 19 countries and 12 international organizations have joined the alliance.

  • It includes both G20 members and non-member countries

  • Other G20 member countries: Argentina, Canada, Italy, South Africa, Bangladesh, Singapore, Mauritius, and the UAE

  • Non-G20 members: Iceland, Kenya, Guyana, Paraguay, Seychelles, Sri Lanka, Uganda, Finland, World Economic Forum (WEF), World LPG Organization, UN-Energy for All, UNIDO, Biofutures Platform, International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO),  World Bank, Asian Development Bank (ADB), International Energy Agency (IEA), International Energy Forum (IEF), International Renewable Energy Agency (IREA), and World Biogas Association (WBA)

  • The GBA initiative was proposed by India to make a group of governments, international organizations, and industries to facilitate the adoption of biofuels.

What are Biofuels?

  • Biofuels are a kind of fuel that produced from organic matter in a short period of time is known as Biofuels.

  • Nature of Biofuels:

    • It may be solid, liquid, and gaseous in nature.                    

Nature of Biofuels



Wood, dried plant material, and manure


Bioethanol and Biodiesel



The most common biofuels are:

Type of Biofuels








Different Generations of Biofuel:

  • According to the origin and production technologies, Biofuels are divided into four categories.

    1. First generation

    2. Second generation

    3. Third generation

    4. Fourth generation

  • The details of above mentioned generations are as follow:

  • First generation:
    • Produced from: Consumable food items which contain starch (rice and wheat) and sugar (beets and sugarcane)

    • It causes a negative impact on food security.

  • Second generation:
    • Produced from: Non-food feedstocks (like forest/industry/agricultural wastes and waste or used vegetable oils)

    • Examples: Cellulose ethanol, and biodiesel

  • Third generation:

    • It is also known as ‘algae fuel’.

    • Example: Butanol

  • Fourth generation:

    • Produced from: Non-arable land

Reason for shifting to biofuels:

  • Rising prices of oil

  • Emission of greenhouse gases from fossil fuels

  • Obtaining fuel from agricultural crops will benefit farmers.

  • India is gently building capacity to produce fuel from crop stubble, plant waste, and municipal solid waste.

  • Presently, India imports over 85% of its crude oil needs.

  • India also aimed to double the mixing of ethanol extracted from sugarcane and agriculture waste to 20% with petrol by 2025.

  • This initiative will help India to achieve its net-zero carbon emissions goal by 2070.

Related Initiatives:

  • Ethanol Blended Petrol (EBP) program: Under this program, the government aims to achieve the blending of Ethanol with a view to reducing pollution.

  • Pradhan Mantri JI-VAN Yojana: Under this scheme, the government targeted to boost Research and Development in the 2G Ethanol sector.

  • GOBAR-DHAN scheme: In this scheme, the GOBAR refers to Galvanizing Organic Bio-Agro Resources. This scheme was launched to manage and convert cattle dung and solid waste to useful compost.

  • Repurpose Used Cooking Oil (RUCO): It was launched by the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) to enable the conversion and collection of used cooking oil to biodiesel.